How Do Proteins Help Condense Chromosomes – Chromosome condensation is the dramatic reorganisation of the long thin chromatin strands into compact short chromosomes that occurs in mitosis and meiosis. Chromosome condensation is mediated by the condensin complex, among other proteins, and is necessary to prevent chromosomes from being entangled during chromosome segregation.
How Do Proteins Help Condense Chromosomes – The most important function of DNA is to carry genes, the information that specifies all the proteins that make up an organism—including information about when, in what types of cells, and in what quantity each protein is to be made. The genomes of eucaryotes are divided up into chromosomes.
The proteins that bind to the DNA to form eucaryotic chromosomes are traditionally divided into two general classes: the histones and the nonhistone chromosomal proteins. The complex of both classes of protein with the nuclear DNA of eucaryotic cells is known as chromatin. Histones are present in such enormous quantities in the cell (about 60 million molecules of each type per human cell) that their total mass in chromatin is about equal to that of the DNA.