Which Is A Function Of A Protein Macromolecule

Which Is A Function Of A Protein Macromolecule – A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits. Proteins are a type of macromolecule. Macromolecules are large molecules that contain over 10,000 atoms. Proteins are made up of small repeating units called amino acids. Proteins are functional macromolecules responsible for catalysing the biochemical reactions that sustain life. Proteins carry out all functions of an organism, for example photosynthesis, neural function, vision, and movement.

Which Is A Function Of A Protein Macromolecule

Which Is A Function Of A Protein Macromolecule

Which Is A Function Of A Protein Macromolecule – Proteins are the most versatile macromolecules in living systems and serve crucial functions in essentially all biological processes. Proteins play an important role in most of the tasks that an organism performs. Proteins carry out the work of a cell, directed by the genetic information carried by the nucleic acids.

A cell holds many thousands of proteins, which function as a cell’s structural elements, storing and transporting small molecules, transmitting data among cells, and defending the body against the onset of infections. But proteins also function as enzymes that accelerate most chemical reactions. In this manner, proteins guide most cellular activities.

A protein molecule is very large compared with molecules of sugar or salt and consists of many amino acids joined together to form long chains, much as beads are arranged on a string. There are about 20 different amino acids that occur naturally in proteins.

Amino acids, often referred to as the building blocks of proteins, are compounds that play many critical roles in your body. Amino acids are organic compounds composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, along with a variable side chain group. Your body needs 20 different amino acids to grow and function properly. Though all 20 of these are important for your health, only nine amino acids are classified as essential.

Each protein has unique sequences of amino acids in its own twisted and folded configuration. The functions of proteins are vast and many, because they are virtually required for all cellular processes of normal physiological functioning. Amino acids can be essential, nonessential or conditional. They are considered essential when required to be taken in by diet, whereas nonessential when they can be made by the body. Conditional amino acids are mostly required only during certain circumstances, such as stress and illness.

Other functions of protein

  • Proteins can exhibit a number of chemical messaging patterns in the form of hormones, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Hormones are produced by glands where they are subsequently transported by the circulatory system to regulate the behavior and physiology of distant organs and systems.
  • They are considered long range messengers. Unlike hormones, neurotransmitters are short range messengers that allow communication between a nerve cell and another target nerve, glandular or muscle cell. Neuropeptides are also short range messengers between nerve cells, however, unlike other neuronal messengers, neuropeptides are not recycled back into the cell once secreted.
  • Proteins constitute a fundamental part of cellular structure and support. Examples of structural proteins include collagen, keratin and elastin. Collagen is the fundamental component of connective tissue and is the most abundant protein in our bodies.
  • Alpha-keratin is vital in the formation of hair and nails, whereas elastin is a very elastic protein that enables tissues to regain their shape after some degree of deformation (e.g. contraction or stretch). On a greater scale, proteins found in muscles allow our bodies to move.
  • In addition to all of their aforementioned functions, proteins are capable of binding and carrying atoms as well as small molecules within cells and throughout our bodies. In this capacity they function as a form of storage and transport. Hemoglobin with the assistance of iron is one example of a protein transporter used to carry oxygen. An example of an intracellular storage protein is ferritin, which is needed to store iron.

 

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